The Certified Maintenance & Reliability Professional (CMRP) program is the leading credential for certifying the knowledge, skills and abilities of maintenance, reliability and physical asset management professionals. The rapidly increasing complexity of factory equipment has led many U.S. manufacturers to look to suppliers for smarter equipment that will ease the need for a technically strong supporting infrastructure. Preventive maintenance practices in this industry evolved by trial and error. In actual, day-to-day production, manufacturing engineers generally monitor two basic measures of equipment or process performance, scheduled and actual. Executive management awareness of present ERM practice in the United States and abroad, and its importance for competitiveness. Although companies technically unprepared to deal with these problems stand to suffer increased costs and reduced capacity, extreme pressure to minimize current-period costs continues to lead operations managers to sacrifice the hiring and training of maintenance personnel. An equipment life-cycle training course was developed to train new suppliers, manufacturing engineers, and procurement teams. Manufacturing of and with Advanced Engineered Materials, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Competitive Edge: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing, Appendix B: Panels of the Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing. This apparently sensible procedure, however, creates an incentive for managers to propose small projects that fall just below the cut-off point where higher level approval would be needed. The maintenance department at Leprino Foods spent most of its time repairing broken equipment. ERM practices contribute significantly to this achievement. Scheduled output is the output expected from an operation for a given allocation of time, material, and labor; it is usually based on a published output rate. It is a logical outgrowth of previous ERM philosophies stemming from the practice of preventive maintenance. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Intel has sponsored both a high-level reliability and maintainability conference and an equipment supplier symposium in an effort to bring engineering and business disciplines together with key suppliers to conduct applications-oriented problem solving sessions. The use of first-class equipment, operating at full capacity, is vital to competitiveness in the world market, a fact U.S. manufacturing managers must be made to believe and given the tools to act upon. The replacement and displacement of conventional electro-mechanical factory equipment by mechatronic equipment have given rise to a very different set of reliability and maintenance requirements. A Strategic Industry at Risk. Results of these performance comparisons are published in the trade press. The Japanese have done it by adhering to the basic principles of motivation, commitment and understanding, and training and discipline. Product and process engineers should be involved in manufacturing decision making, with financial analysts supplying guidance. Benefits of Intel's ERM program have included reduced cost per unit at each process step, as factory operations and support costs associated with downtime or slower area throughput time have been reduced. Present problems need to be resolved at a practical level, while high-technology approaches to ERM are developed in the next generation of equipment. In general, manufacturing has been slow to recognize the value of the scientific base; it has placed inordinate value on activity (go fast to go slow) and subscribed to a trial and error approach to problem solving that fails to attack root causes. Equipment design employs new approaches that use broader data bases. As a result, it is difficult to make comparisons, share results and good practices among cooperating operations, and measure ERM performance trends in any one factory in a universally credible way. It measures the average time required to restore an asset to its full operational condition after a failure. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. SUBSTANTIAL CAPITAL investments, in the form of facilities and equipment, are required for manufacturing almost all goods of economic significance. Read "Our equipment is “special.” Standard maintenance practices do not apply." Must CIM be justified by faith alone? ERM must be recognized as an integral part of manufacturing that has a major impact on quality and productivity. In contrast to design engineers who, because they are charged in most cases directly to a product, are viewed as contributors, manufacturing engineers and skilled workers are considered manufacturing overhead and, hence, as opportunities for cost reduction. The factory is becoming a web of interdependent subsystems, interconnected by computer controllers that communicate horizontally across peer processes. Its inputs a… Wholly owned and joint-venture manufacturing facilities established in North America by Japanese firms during the 1980s provide a basis for comparing U.S. and Japanese ERM practices in a variety of areas. The hardest part of starting a reliability program is freeing up time to work on proactive tasks. Troubleshooting IS NOT Root Cause Analysis In the introduction stage, the ERM program is kicked off. Inquiries into ERM in the next generation of equipment should be based on practical investigations into improving it in the present generation. The goal of the strategy is to eliminate the six main downtime losses: losses from setup time associated with periodic changes and adjustments of tools and dies; losses that result from idling, minor stoppages induced by sensors, and blockages of work in chutes; losses attributable to differences between actual and design speeds of equipment; process-related losses associated with defects and reworking; and. Equipment reliability and maintenance practices for better returns on capital investment. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Manufacturing engineering and software training programs are badly needed. Systematic methodologies that will enable manufacturers to communicate equipment requirements in clear, operational terms need to be developed. Sensors monitor the condition and performance of equipment throughout the manufacturing system and feed back relevant data to system controllers that interact with technically sophisticated human operators who use the data to maximize throughput, effect timely maintenance, and recover promptly from equipment failure. Veteran engineers in one Japanese company with fewer than 50 employees, for example, developed all of the firm's equipment, tools, and dies. Many of the managers who cannot improve their plants arrived in manufacturing with finance/MBA training and had never set foot in a factory. In addition to a broader professional Master of Science degree, greater emphasis is needed on the production of master technicians. In many companies, the capital approval process specifies different levels of authorization depending on the size of the request. Still, the system has served the utility well. Japanese efforts in this area have dramatically improved quality, lowered cost, and reduced plant breakdowns from 10 percent to as little as 1 percent of previous levels within three years. Die change time, which necessarily represents scheduled machine downtime, is a critical element of overall operating performance, and rapid, efficient die changing is a key basis of competition in stamping operations. Advanced engineered materials that offer the prospect of better life-cycle performance and other gains. Because management needs both knowledge and data to know what to do and how to do it, a concurrent effort must be mounted to identify and supply the hard data without which even an enlightened management will be unable to identify the areas that need improvement. By increasing uptime and yields of good parts, ERM can reduce capital requirements, thereby cutting total production costs. Develop a maintenance strategy based on equipment criticality- RCM, PMO or RTF. Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is a concept of maintenance planning to ensure that systems continue to do what their user require in their present operating context. The charter of a U.S. plant maintenance institute might include: competitive assessment of ERM (United States versus other countries), research to improve ERM competitiveness and spread best practice, assistance to companies attempting to improve ERM, ERM training assistance, a forum for technology transfer, and recognition of companies that meet predefined ERM thresholds. While condition-based maintenance introduced a new dimension to asset management, it was still only based on whatever a machine’s current condition was. The strategy, which focuses on achieving economical life cycle cost for equipment and other physical assets, began in Japan in the early 1970s. Who is, and is not, walking the floors of today's plants is also of concern. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Across each industry is a reli-. Given the opportunity cost of shutdown, such a system could calculate the benefit of reducing or eliminating each category of downtime. Making a case for increased spending on ERM to a management that perceives itself to be at a strong competitive disadvantage relies on demonstrating a benefit-to-cost relationship. The on-line system included hardware, software, and diagnostic engineering services. There was a lack of organization. Development of a standard methodology for data analysis. No available method of measuring system reliability (e.g., equipment effectiveness = availability × speed ratio × yield) has yet been widely accepted by U.S. manufacturers, and manually collected production downtime data are questionable, inasmuch as waiting time for repairs is seldom reported. The objectives of each survey are tailored to the requirements of management. In Japan, for instance, many firms are engaged in a 10-year program to upgrade predictive maintenance to the point where ERM becomes the responsibility entirely of operators. With an aging complement of steam turbine generators and few new plants in the planning cycle, the U.S utilities industry is responding to increasing demand for electricity by adopting new practices for maintaining and improving the availability of existing equipment. 1. The task will require a major departure from the traditional lines of demarcation between the trades necessitating, in essence, a cultural change—probably the most difficult problem U.S. industry faces. It is most often expressed as a percentage, using the following calculation: Availability = 100 x (Available Time (hours) / Total Time (hours)) For equipment and/or systems that are expected to be able to be operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, Total Time is usually defined as being 24 hours/day, 7 days/week (in other words 8,760 hours per year). General attention to the inadequacy of the basic level of talent. An understanding of enterprise optimization is needed to guide the application of technical work in the plant. Managers with this understanding can take a plant beyond the benefits of JIT to realize the potential benefits of ERM. The research agenda should reflect the present perspective on ERM. The review paper addresses two main topics; (i) identifying procedures presently in use or being developed for assessing or predicting the reliability of equipment, and (ii) identifying OR practices that can improve equipment reliability through objectively determined maintenance practices. Some two-year colleges are already cooperating with manufacturers to teach technical skills to shop floor personnel. This position will work closely as a member of the assigned Business Unit to coordinate and prioritize short- and long-term maintenance plans. For over 45 years, we’ve partnered with hundreds of manufacturing plants around the world to eliminate the costs and the pressure caused by … They will not begin to address these issues, however, unless they are convinced of the importance of ERM for competitiveness. SOURCE: Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Copyright © 1985 Published by Elsevier B.V. Development of standards for design and test, measurement and evaluation of ERM, and operator–equipment interfaces. Emphasis on sensor technologies and self-diagnosis. Since 1987, Intel Corporation has used ERM techniques to increase uptime and speed throughput for both the currently installed and the next generation of equipment. Replies will … These figures are often given on a yield basis (e.g., output per unit of time or material input). Imagine being a maintenance engineer and receiving 50 work orders during an overhaul with a limited budget, time, labor, spare parts, tools, machines, etc. This would be helped greatly by a competitiveness assessment that reflects ERM differentials. A new attitude that equipment should improve through use. In fact, to the extent that they lead management to treat maintenance as an indirect cost that increases factory overhead, these systems may be putting the U.S. asset base at risk. Intelligent manufacturing control for improved reliability and greater precision. Preventive maintenance, therefore, loses its urgency and breakdown maintenance becomes the order of the day. Since, as we established earlier, reliability takes everything from design to organizational culture into consideration, there can be many different fr… This approach should delineate basic principles that are demonstrably effective and universally applicable. Maintenance can only preserve your equipment’s inherent design reliability and performance. The theoretical capacity of a manufacturing process or machine is the output per unit of time of continuous operation at the maximum safe operating speed. In addition, practices that will promote effective implementation and continuous improvement of ERM must be developed. The entire manufacturing organization, including executive management, recognizes the value of high equipment availability and the role of ERM in achieving it. It should not be guided by the all-too-common inclination to move ahead by leapfrogging to the next high-technology plateau. Most process engineers employ a deterministic safety factor approach that reflects a reasonable level of unavoidable loss of output. Though generally accepted accounting principles are inadequate for manufacturing decision making, no substitutes have gained wide acceptance. Aishin Seiki's success reflects neither high technology nor large investments in new facilities. In many companies, career paths for these employees are deemphasized, and responsibility for their training and development is specifically assigned to no one. (excerpt from: Kaplan, R. S. 1986. Many U.S. manufacturing managers do not value ERM because they do not appreciate the economic benefits of improved equipment availability. Technicians can extend the equipment’s availability by increasing its reliability. Let’s break them down individually for maintenance planning and scheduling: This volume presents a concise and well-organized analysis of new research directions to achieve these goals. A more enlightened approach to reducing equipment life-cycle costs would be to increase capital investment at the concept and design stages in order to improve equipment reliability, maintainability, and predictability and thereby reduce operations and support costs that inflate factory overhead (Figure 3-6). Concurrent engineering warrants study as a means of building ERM considerations into equipment from the beginning. It is vital that each function and department links themselves to the overarching objective of the whole. Source: Intel Corporation, 1989. Equipment maintenance refers to the work done to either repair an equipment problem, prevent the equipment from wearing down, or to make the equipment run better. Operational changes that will enhance ERM must be identified. One example is the stamping of automobile hoods, fenders, doors, and other major steel components. Software and sensors have the potential to enhance ERM and so mitigate the added complexity associated with these technologies (see Figure 3-1). In recent years, reliability-centered maintenancehas gained popularity. Equipment-related needs can be grouped under the categories of performance measurement (identifying what we need to know and how to measure it), tools and techniques (what we can do for. 3. Between 1979 and 1982, the Japanese Nishio pump factory of Aishin Seiki reduced equipment breakdowns from 700 per month to effectively zero, while achieving an extraordinary level of quality— 11 defects per 1 million pumps produced. Lacking standard measures of ERM and using reward systems that typically do not encourage operators or supervisors to record or try to maximize equipment performance, industry can give suppliers very little information about its equipment beyond installation. The Reliability Planner will also evaluate and assess equipment reliability data, to identify and implement plan improvements. Finally, this position may periodically function in a supervisory role. U.S. semiconductor manufacturers traditionally have not communicated with their original equipment suppliers, nor have they taken advantage of engineering and managing upgrades, modifications, maintenance, and spare parts issued internally. In 1980, U.S. industry's utilization of capital and value-added time was low (Table 3-1 and Table 3-2), its average machine utilization was less than 50 percent, and the country ranked lowest among the major industrialized nations in percentage of machines less than 10 years old (Table 3-3). Rather, it is the result of a strategy for achieving zero defects and zero breakdowns through common-sense engineering, attention to basics, and hard work and team effort guided by a top-management vision. Effective management of ERM requires realistic awareness of the benefits of and necessary decisions related to ERM, the technical knowledge that will permit managers to make appropriate. These bridges outside the engineering school will help recast the industrial engineer of yesterday as the systems engineer of today. While judgment is required to ensure that manufacturing equipment is efficiently utilized, sensor technologies and self-diagnostics may be sufficient to ensure that it is reliably maintained. There are two commonly used measures of reliability: * Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), which is defined as: total time in service / number of failures * Failure Rate (λ), which is defined as: number of failures / total time in service. Cost models associated with short-term measures, which rapidly drive future costs to zero in a present value analysis using a relatively high rate of return, lead managers to emphasize initial purchase price in equipment acquisition. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? If the vision set forth in this report is ever to be realized, the skills and capabilities that will be needed by managers at each level of the organization, and the agencies and institutions—universities, industries, companies, community colleges, etc.—best positioned to cultivate these skills, must be identified. A standard methodology for measuring the performance of ERM is needed, as is a way to quantify the benefits of ERM for top management. In firms whose management understands facility issues, including the implications of ERM efforts, just-in-time (JIT)1 is less a measure of inventory than an indication that all processes are under control. Technology management is becoming an accepted discipline in a growing number of U.S. academic institutions. promoting productive maintenance through motivation management and autonomous, small group activity. Research needs in this area are amplified in Chapter 2, Intelligent Manufacturing Control. A focus on using and managing technology. Development of a strawman model for analyzing the impact of various methodologies on the manufacturing environment. Not a MyNAP member yet? Rapid product realization techniques to speed delivery to the marketplace. The panel has ranked research needs in ERM within two broad categories. Additional capacity can be made available in many cases by increasing equipment utilization rates rather than by adding units of equipment. Procurement specifications have been upgraded to require that all key process equipment suppliers have a basic level of ERM expertise. All-Too-Common inclination to move ahead by leapfrogging to the requirements of management previous ERM philosophies stemming from practice. Requirements and reliability internship programs is a little-used approach that has a major impact on equipment is. 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