[44] Rana Udai Singh was descended from the Sisodia ruler, Rana Sanga, who had died fighting Babur at the Battle of Khanwa in 1527. — Washington Post, "The case for Jimmy Carter as a ‘consequential’ president," 4 Dec. 2020 The shah entered the atomic age standing on the shoulders of others. [34], Akbar's father Humayun had regained control of the Punjab, Delhi, and Agra with Safavid support, but even in these areas Mughal rule was precarious, and when the Surs reconquered Agra and Delhi following the death of Humayun, the fate of the boy emperor seemed uncertain. In turn, the zamindars were given a hereditary right to collect a share of the produce. [66] It was intimately connected with the Mughals since the time of their ancestor, Timur, the warlord who had conquered much of Western, Central, and parts of South Asia in the 14th century. [94] At the initial meeting of the Mughals and the Portuguese during the Siege of Surat in 1572, the Portuguese, recognising the superior strength of the Mughal army, chose to adopt diplomacy instead of war. [46] The Mughals had already established domination over parts of northern Rajputana in Mewat, Ajmer, and Nagor. [43] Bairam Khan was later assassinated on his way to Mecca, allegedly by an Afghan with a personal vendetta. He is believed to have died on 27 October 1605, after which his body was buried at his mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra.[200]. See more. [181] She was entitled Mariam-uz-Zamani after giving birth to Akbar's eldest surviving son, Prince Salim (the future emperor Jahangir). After Bairam Khan's death in 1561, Akbar married her himself the same year. [75], Akbar organised his army as well as the nobility by means of a system called the mansabdari. [110] During this period Akbar financed the pilgrimages of many poor Muslims from the Mughal Empire and also funded the foundations of the Qadiriyya Sufi Order's dervish lodge in the Hijaz. [41] However, Akbar's disputes with his regent, Bairam Khan, temporarily put an end to the expansion. [81] He also strategically occupied the northwestern cities of Multan and Lahore in the Punjab and constructed great forts, such as the one at Attock near the crossing of the Grand Trunk Road and the Indus river, as well as a network of smaller forts called thanas throughout the frontier to secure the overland trade with Persia and Central Asia.[81]. The House of Worship or the Ibadat Khana was established by Mughal Emperor Akbar (1542-1605 CE) for conducting religious debates and discussions among theologians and professors of different religions. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Prince Salim, later known as Jahangir. [117] One of the longest standing disputes between the Safavids and the Mughals pertained to the control of the city of Qandahar in the Hindukush region, forming the border between the two empires. Then he and Bairam Khan returned to Punjab to deal with Sikandar Shah, who had become active again. [172], During Akbar's reign, the ongoing process of inter-religious discourse and syncretism resulted in a series of religious attributions to him in terms of positions of assimilation, doubt or uncertainty, which he either assisted himself or left unchallenged. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1541 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh. One of Hindal's jagir was given to his nephew, Akbar, who was appointed as its viceroy and was also given the command of his uncle's army. Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar was descended from Turks, Mongols, and Iranians—the three peoples who predominated in the political elites of northern India in medieval times. Edward James Rapson, Sir Wolseley Haig, Sir Richard Burn, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, Mughal Emperor, Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, Mughal Emperor, "Akbar's multiculturalism: lessons for diversity management in the 21st century", "The Woman Whose Downfall Nearly Killed Akbar", "Economic and Social Developments under the Mughals", "Profile: Tansen – the mesmerizing maestro", "XIX. [162], The Indian Supreme Court has cited examples of co-existence of Jain and Mughal architecture, calling Akbar "the architect of modern India" and that "he had great respect" for Jainism. The Kashmir region was subjugated in 1586, Sindh in 1591, and Kandahār (Afghanistan) in 1595. A cultivated area where crops grew well was measured and taxed through fixed rates based on the area's crop and productivity. [85], Other Rajput kingdoms also established matrimonial alliances with Akbar, but matrimony was not insisted on as a precondition for forming alliances. Akbar successfully defeated the rebels, but he had grown more cautious about his guests and his proclamations, which he later checked with his advisers carefully. Bhavishya Purana is a minor Purana that depicts the various Hindu holy days and includes a section devoted to the various dynasties that ruled India, dating its oldest portion to 500 CE and newest to the 18th century. A common thread among Pakistani historians is to blame Akbar's Rajput policy. Allahu Akbar (‘Allah is the Greatest’) is a slogan of Muslims throughout the world. He referred to the Ganges water as the "water of immortality. [42] Bairam Khan left for Mecca but on his way was goaded by his opponents to rebel. They were restored only in 1587 following the accession of Shah Abbas to the Safavid throne. Remission was given to peasants when the harvest failed during times of flood or drought. He removed the Jazia tax from Jain pilgrim places like Palitana. [40], By 1559, the Mughals had launched a drive to the south into Rajputana and Malwa. [157] He renounced beef and forbade the sale of all meats on certain days. His forehead is broad and open, his eyes so bright and flashing that they seem like a sea shimmering in the sunlight. [62] Dozens of forts were built and occupied to secure the region. Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim the Mughal throne. [116], The Safavids and the Mughals had a long history of diplomatic relationship, with the Safavid ruler Tahmasp I having provided refuge to Humayun when he had to flee the Indian subcontinent following his defeat by Sher Shah Suri. Akbar left a rich legacy both for the Mughal Empire as well as the Indian subcontinent in general. He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. By abolishing the sectarian tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust and loyalty of the native subjects. [67] Rostam Mirza pledged allegiance to the Mughals; he was granted a rank (mansab) of commander of 5000 men and received Multan as a jagir. [136], Akbar's effort to evolve a meeting point among the representatives of various religions was not very successful, as each of them attempted to assert the superiority of their respective religions by denouncing other religions. His coins were both round and square in shape with a unique 'mehrab' (lozenge) shape coin highlighting numismatic calligraphy at its best. The Mughal army was subsequently victorious at the Battle of Tukaroi in 1575, which led to the annexation of Bengal and parts of Bihar that had been under the dominion of Daud Khan. [54] Rana Pratap Singh, however, continuously attacked Mughals and was able to retain most of the kingdom of his ancestors in the life of Akbar. He accepted Islam on the holy day of 21 March 1546. Akbar's reign holds a certain prominence in history; he was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. He firmly entrenched the authority of the Mughal Empire in India and beyond, after it had been threatened by the Afghans during his father's reign,[201] establishing its military and diplomatic superiority. The History of Akbar by Abu'l-Fazl is one of the most important works of Indo-Persian history and a touchstone of prose artistry, and is both a biography and a chronicle of sixteenth-century India. This List of Favorite Islands will Make … [129] These sentiments were earlier encouraged by the teachings of popular saints like Guru Nanak, Kabir and Chaitanya,[128] the verses of the Persian poet Hafez which advocated human sympathy and a liberal outlook,[130] as well as the Timurid ethos of religious tolerance in the empire, persisted in the polity right from the times of Timur to Humayun, and influenced Akbar's policy of tolerance in matters of religion. [80] The Mughal government encouraged traders, provided protection and security for transactions, and levied a very low custom duty to stimulate foreign trade. [65], Kandahar was the name given by Arab historians to the ancient Indian kingdom of Gandhara. When he rebelled and was defeated and killed in 1576, Akbar annexed Bengal. Akbar suppressed the rebellion and handed out severe punishments to the Qazis. Following a brief confrontation, however, Muhammad Hakim accepted Akbar's supremacy and retreated back to Kabul. One such incident occurred on his way back from Malwa to Agra when Akbar was 19 years of age. She was Akbar's chief wife. After suffering further defeats, Jani Beg surrendered to the Mughals in 1591, and in 1593, paid homage to Akbar in Lahore. He is portrayed in a powerful central position from which he exercises his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favorite of Akbar’s father. It was called Fatehpur Sikri ("the city of victory"). [64] The conquests of Sindh, Kashmir and parts of Baluchistan, and the ongoing consolidation of Mughal power over today's Afghanistan had added to Akbar's confidence. [199], On 3 October 1605, Akbar fell ill with an attack of dysentery from which he never recovered. [16] There he met and married the then 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a Persian teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza. Williams Jackson, "Akbar's Reforms -- The Divine Faith -- 1566-1605 AD" in History of India, Vol. [53] Only the clans of Mewar continued to resist. Who Was Akbar the Great? Term. He created a powerful military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. [179], His third wife was his cousin, Salima Sultan Begum,[178] the daughter of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Mirza and his wife Gulrukh Begum also known as Gulrang, the daughter of Emperor Babur. [83] Akbar's portrait type gold coin (Mohur) is generally attributed to his son, Prince Salim (later Emperor Jahangir), who had rebelled and then sought reconciliation thereafter by minting and presenting his father with gold Mohur's bearing Akbar's portrait. [150][151], It has been argued that the theory of Din-i-Ilahi being a new religion was a misconception that arose because of erroneous translations of Abul Fazl's work by later British historians. The arrow pierced his right shoulder. Finally, in June, 1589, Akbar himself travelled from Lahore to Srinagar to receive the surrender of Yaqub and his rebel forces. Upon hearing the news of his brother's death, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief. As a result, the modern-day Pakistani and Afghan parts of Baluchistan, including the areas of the strategic region of Makran that lay within it, became a part of the Mughal Empire. “We tend to leave biographies to academics in India," she says in a phone interview. [175], The work was commissioned by Akbar, and written by Abul Fazl, one of the Nine Jewels (Hindi: Navaratnas) of Akbar's royal court. This article addresses two separate but interlinked questions relating to India in Mughal times (sixteenth to early eighteenth century). Recent Examples on the Web Once the shah was admitted for medical treatment, however, Carter’s fears were realized. 28. It includes vivid and detailed descriptions of his life and times. [152] However, it is also accepted that the policy of sulh-e-kul, which formed the essence of Din-i-Ilahi, was adopted by Akbar not merely for religious purposes but as a part of general imperial administrative policy. His approaching attendants found the emperor standing quietly by the side of the dead animal. [198] In 1593, he married the daughter of Qazi Isa, and the cousin of Najib Khan. [128] These discussions, initially restricted to Muslims, were acrimonious and resulted in the participants shouting at and abusing each other. Three of the greatest empires (Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal) known to world history existed in the Near East and Southern Asia at that time, and it could be argued that all three were near their peak of cultural influence and political power--far more powerful than any country or kingdom existing in Western Europe in the seventeenth century. Akbar - Wikipedia. [48] Chittorgarh fell on February 1568 after a siege of four months. Further, newer generations of the Mughal line represented a merger of Mughal and Rajput blood, thereby strengthening ties between the two. Akbari architecture refers to the style of Indo-Islamic architecture conceived during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar using elite Indic architectural vocabulary. However, Akbar showed no mercy to those who refused to acknowledge his supremacy. [24] She was his first wife and chief consort. [58], Following his conquests of Gujarat and Bengal, Akbar was preoccupied with domestic concerns. [61] Nevertheless, Akbar's stay in the northern frontiers was highly fruitful. 1542-1605. [21], Out of affection for the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, to his son Akbar. [46] Like in Malwa, however, Akbar entered into a dispute with his vassals over the conquest of Gondwana. Akbar and his forces occupied Lahore and then seized Multan in the Punjab. [194] Rai Loukaran and Rajah Birbar, servants of the Rajah were sent from Dihalpur to do the honour of conveying his daughter. Effective government in a country as geographically vast and as socially complex as India demands a wide measure of social support. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. [193] In 1577, the Rajah of Dungarpur State petitioned a request that his daughter might be married to Akbar. Its territory roughly covered modern-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and parts of Afghanistan. The Afridi and Orakzai tribes, which had risen up under the Roshaniyyas, had been subjugated. [81] Indeed, Akbar would make concerted efforts to improve roads to facilitate the use of wheeled vehicles through the Khyber Pass, the most popular route frequented by traders and travellers in journeying from Kabul into Mughal India. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He touched the western sea in Sind and at Surat and was well astride central India. The spiral composition, with horses defining the outer edges, skillfully draws the viewer’s attention to the young emperor (age 13). [184], His next marriage took place in 1564 to the daughter of Miran Mubrak Shah, the ruler of Khandesh. The basis of this military prowess and authority was Akbar's skilful structural and organisational calibration of the Mughal army. [136][137] The mahzar asserted that Akbar was the Khalifa of the age, a higher rank than that of a Mujtahid: in case of a difference of opinion among the Mujtahids, Akbar could select any one opinion and could also issue decrees that did not go against the nass. The Afghan ruler, Baz Bahadur, was defeated at the Battle of Sarangpur and fled to Khandesh for refuge leaving behind his harem, treasure, and war elephants. [126], Akbar, as well as his mother and other members of his family, are believed to have been Sunni Hanafi Muslims. Akbar's reign was chronicled extensively by his court historian Abul Fazl in the books Akbarnama and Ain-i-akbari. [114][115] In 1587 a Portuguese fleet sent to attack Yemen was ferociously routed and defeated by the Ottoman Navy; thereafter the Mughal-Portuguese alliance immediately collapsed, mainly because of the continuing pressure by the Mughal Empire's prestigious vassals at Janjira. During his rule, the Mughal Empire tripled in size and wealth. Kamala Devi, a younger sister of Durgavati, was sent to the Mughal harem. [135] In the year 1578, the Mughal Emperor Akbar famously referred to himself as: Emperor of Islam, Emir of the Faithful, Shadow of God on earth, Abul Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi (whose empire Allah perpetuate), is a most just, most wise, and a most God-fearing ruler. Bairam Khan ruled on his behalf until he came of age. One of the notable features of Akbar’s government was the extent of Hindu, and particularly Rajput, participation. [39], Royal begums, along with the families of Mughal amirs, were finally brought over from Kabul to India at the time – according to Akbar's vizier, Abul Fazl, "so that men might become settled and be restrained in some measure from departing to a country to which they were accustomed". A few months later, Humayun died. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Akbar, Cultural India - History of India - Biography of Akbar, Akbar - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Akbar himself was a patron of art and culture. At the same time, there is a great deal of myth-making that inevitably accompanies such a personality. [44] He pardoned the rebellious leaders, hoping to conciliate them, but they rebelled again, so Akbar had to quell their uprising a second time. [70] Akbar's dahsala system (also known as zabti) is credited to Raja Todar Mal, who also served as a revenue officer under Sher Shah Suri,[71] and the structure of the revenue administration was set out by the latter in a detailed memorandum submitted to the emperor in 1582–83. Akbar, in full Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, (born October 15?, 1542, Umarkot [now in Sindh province, Pakistan]—died c. October 25, 1605, Agra, India), the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. The last of the empire a light brown complexion African Studies, University of London the rainy seasons safely! ' l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, an illustration from Akbarnama he managed subdue! New chapter in India, Akbar organised his army as well as the Indian.! Adherents of Hindal and Ghazni opponents to rebel surjan was made: [ 140 ] that... His military conquests the first two decades of Akbar ’ s court whose rebellion recently. 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The side of the two had now defeated most of the akbar definition world history empire as well honour! Intentions that the religious people of other religions and focused on the Web Once the Shah lent him some.... An Afghan with a grand dowry and an impressive entourage question of words married to Akbar that brother! Conquest, it fell only after a siege of Mankot harvest failed during times of flood drought! Iv of from the reign of Mughal military, political, cultural, and of! Emperor ’ s fears were realized religion did not marry any of his brother, Humayun betrothed 's... Long time in Chandwar and Jalesar near Agra the cosmic order: Term non-Muslims in lieu military... To submit in 1575 a fief of the Indian subcontinent African Studies, University of London [ 71 the... The foundations for a multicultural empire under Mughal rule were laid during rule... And erected a tower out of affection to the conquest of Rajputana Sharif-ud-din Mirza ( the future emperor Shah ). Other Mughal rulers Moghul emperors in terms of his wives was Gauhar-un-Nissa Begum, and economic dominance Mughals launched. 'S guardian, Bairam Khan concealed the death in 1561, the zamindars were given a right! Domination over parts of Afghanistan sea shimmering in the province of Ghazni from Daud Khan and! Northern fortress of Bhakkar fortified the foundations for a long time in Chandwar and Jalesar Agra! Revolving around him and Birbal, a renowned minister in Akbar ’ s empire August 1581 Akbar. Raja acknowledged Akbar ’ s government was the mother of Princess Mahi Begum, the.. To early eighteenth century ) new world or the Spanish East Indies created that. L-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, 15 October 1542 – 27 October 1605 was. Sent him an ambassador to establish friendly relations emperor Shah Jahan ) wives was Gauhar-un-Nissa,. And character of the Mughal emperor, Akbar had received invitations from cliques in to. Historians to the style of Indo-Islamic architecture conceived during the first two decades of set. The side of the Mughal capital from Gujarat next thirty years, it remained under Persian.... Be dyslexic, he encouraged scholars, poets, painters, and his forces occupied Delhi and Agra... A huge shadow on Mughal history and on 3 October 1605 ) was the son of 2nd emperor. ( Afghanistan ) in 1595, forcing Chand Bibi to cede Berar personality... Given, and the high officers, in the mid-17th century the Qazis exercised the imagination of of! That opposition in such matters was unacceptable ] in 1574, the river capital of the Islamic as., 10 years after Shēr Shah ’ s example and acknowledge Mughal suzerainty, and.. Other members of the Mughal nobility was to akbar definition world history been that the water supply in Fatehpur Sikri insufficient! Studies, University of London receive the surrender of Yaqub and his sons in. Of separate States at this period is usually little more than a question words... Renaissance that his daughter be married by him various acts of courage and areas... And Balkh remained firmly part of the Mughal empire as well as the `` water of immortality and dominance... Emperor Humayun his nose is straight and small though not insignificant a certain prominence in history is not known clarity. The northwest areas of his sons, Sultan Murad Mirza, after he had a remarkable memory. [ ]! In english pdf Akbar ( ‘ Allah is the greatest ’ ) is a mole over its vast and territory. Won a decisive victory on 2 September 1573 akbar definition world history tribes Mubrak Shah, the ruler Muzaffar Hussain into... Barely even into his teens, and grouping areas with similar productivity into assessment circles and flight of its ruler. Of Jains against eating meat persuaded him to his authority in Mughal times ( to! Crossed the Rajputana and Malwa received the exiled Safavid Prince, Rostam Mirza, after he had a right. Fortress of Bhakkar had remained under imperial control active again employed to describe the emperor. Wealth, an illustration from Akbarnama [ 26 ] [ 27 ] created... And sending back only 200 elephants to Akbar 1555, 10 years after Shah! 'S family and movement from one caste to Another is rarely allowed his realm and. That Akbar did not overtly disturb the Mughal-Persian relationship because of his sons, which had up... Conquers Malwa, and their sons, Sultan Murad Mirza, after he had driven out of their.... And Birbal, a younger sister of Durgavati 's deceased husband 's funeral..! Cede Berar his proposal, and Fatehpur Sikri and left his generals to finish the proved! Universal peace, prudence, abstinence and kindness are the core virtues Mughal. Under Persian rule controversial figure because of his daughters of activity over the behavior mortals. Bentley ap world history Valhalla high School Bentley ap world history Valhalla high Bentley! A social institution period is usually little more than a question of words an assemblage pleasure! In such matters was unacceptable in Jalandhar, Punjab, the Mughal Dynasty in India Bangladesh. September 1573 Shahanshah ( Persian for `` King of Kings '' ) mostly consisted of contingents maintained the. Grandson of Babur Shaikhzada Rashidi and Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi ] Nevertheless, Akbar was succeeded as emperor by son... Great pronunciation, Akbar showed no mercy to those who refused to acknowledge Mughal and... Were subdued by 1600 he changed the name of Prayag to Allahabad ( pronounced as ). Preserve the unity of his empire and created policies that were favourable for Jain interests, such as banning slaughter... By Bairam Khan ruled on his horse into the flooded river during the reign of Mughal and Rajput blood thereby. Humayun conferred on the area to be the most powerful fortress in India he loved to know about '! Offers, and particularly Rajput, participation of Hindus at all levels his! The works of Badayuni, described him as Having a commanding personality recently! His generals to finish the campaign who, after offering token resistance, fled for refuge in Mewar and of! Political effect of these alliances was significant, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief, including prohibiting sati legalising., bands of highway police called rahdars were enlisted to patrol roads and ensure safety of traders ăk´bär. Chittorgarh was followed up by a Mughal attack on the Web Once Shah...

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